[2021-Vol.18-Issue 6]Conceptual Method of Temperature Sensation in Bionic Hand by Extraordinary Perceptual Phenomenon
Post: 2021-12-23 12:46  View:239

Journal of Bionic Engineering (2021) 18:1344–1357

Conceptual Method of Temperature Sensation in Bionic Hand by Extraordinary Perceptual Phenomenon

Saeed Bahrami Moqadam1  · Ahamd Saleh Asheghabadi1  · Farzaneh Norouzi2  · Hamed Jafarzadeh3  · Ali Khosroabadi4  · Afshin Alagheband5  · Ghazal Bangash6  · Negar Morovatdar7  · Jing Xu1

1State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
2 Medical University of Mashhad, 13131–99137 Mashhad, Iran
3 Center for Computational and Data Intensive Science and Engineering (CDISE), Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology (Skoltech), Moscow 121205, Russia
4 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad 9177948974, Iran
5 Department of Electrical Engineering, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad 9177948974, Iran
6 Department of Computer Engineering, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad 9177948974, Iran
7 Clinical Research Unit, Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, 13131–99137 Mashhad, Iran 

Abstract  Lack of temperature sensation of myoelectric prosthetic hand limits the daily activities of amputees. To this end, a noninvasive temperature sensation method is proposed to train amputees to sense temperature with psychophysical sensory substitution. In this study, 22 healthy participants took part besides 5 amputee participants. The duration time of the study was 31 days with fve test steps according to the Leitner technique. An adjustable temperature mug and a Peltier were used to change the temperature of the water/phantom digits to induce temperature to participants. Also, to isolate the surroundings and show colors, a Virtual Reality (VR) glass was employed. The statistical results conducted are based on the response of participants with questionnaire method. Using Chi-square tests, it is concluded that participants answer the experiment signifcantly correctly using the Leitner technique (P value<0.05). Also, by applying the “Repeated Measures ANOVA”, it is noticed that the time of numbness felt by participants had signifcant (P value<0.001) diference. Participants could remember lowest and highest temperatures signifcantly better than other temperatures (P value<0.001); furthermore, the well-trained amputee participant practically using the prosthesis with 72.58% could identify object’s temperature with only once time experimenting the color temperature. 

Keywords Temperature perceptions · Leitner learning technique · Classical conditioning · Psychophysical sensory substitution · Extraordinary perceptual phenomenon · Bionic hand prosthesis


a Five-step tests of the Leitner learning technique. b The situation of each healthy participants when they were in conditioning procedure. c The situation of each amputee participants during conditioning based on Leitner technique. The rooms where testing and conditioning took place were same and quiet

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