[2022-Vol.19-Issue 2]Development of a Tribofidelic Human Heel Surrogate for Barefoot Slip Testing
Post: 2022-04-08 20:14  View:198

Journal of Bionic Engineering (2022) 19:429–439

Development of a Tribofdelic Human Heel Surrogate for Barefoot Slip Testing 

Subhodip Chatterjee1  · Arnab Chanda1,2

1 Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016, India
2 Department of Biomedical Engineering, All India Institute of Medical Science, New Delhi 110029, India 

Abstract  Barefoot slips contribute to over 37% of recurrent fall-related injuries across all age groups. To study slip risk across a wide range of fooring conditions, slip meters with barefoot surrogates (i.e., sensors, as per ASTM standard nomenclature) such as animal skins and rubbers have been used to date, which exhibit biomechanical and frictional properties widely diferent from the barefoot human skin. Development of a surrogate which can accurately simulate the human heel skin properties would be immensely benefcial for realistic assessment of barefoot slipping risk. A novel surrogate was developed using 3D scanning and printing, and biomimetics, which precisely simulates the biomechanical and frictional properties of the barefoot human heel skin. Mechanical slip testing was conducted with this surrogate on three common bathroom foorings and with six diferent contaminants. Coefcient of Friction (COF) results similar to human slipping experiments, high repeatability and reproducibility across wet and oily fooring conditions, were confrmed through experiments with the developed heel skin surrogate. The heel skin surrogate would be an indispensable model for accurate estimation of barefoot risk against slips and falls in bathrooms, bathtubs, and swimming pools. 

Keywords  Barefoot · Surrogate · Slip · Fall · Bathroom · Bathtub


a 3D scanning of foot, b 3D foot model trimmed in the boxed regions, c 3D cutting at specified angle to extract essential heel geometry, d heel mold with thickness

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